The PCB Assembly Process

In this article, you will learn about the PCB assembly process. This process is important in the manufacturing of printed circuit boards because of the high quality demands of consumers. Generally speaking, this process involves performing optimization strategies in order to make sure that there will be low levels of manufactured defects. In this way, consumers only get the best quality PCB.

There are a number of separate and distinct stages in the PCB assembly process. Nevertheless, it would be crucial for each stage to be performed correctly to be able to form a good overall printed circuit board.

In a nutshell, the process of assembling printed circuit boards involves the addition of solder paste to the place, pick and board of the component parts. In addition, it involves inspection, soldering and test. All these stages are important to make sure that the end product is of the highest quality possible.
PCB Board

The first step in the PCB assembly process is the addition of the solder paste.

The solder paste must be added in the board areas where solder will be needed. This is done through the use of a solder screen. Generally speaking, solder is required in areas such as component pads. Nevertheless, there will be other areas that will require solder so the paste must be added in them.

The second step in the process is the pick and place.

Once the solder paste had been added to the board, it is now time to execute the pick and place process. In the pick and place process, a reel loaded machine will technically place the board onto a correct position using the tension of the solder paste thereby adding the component parts.

The third step in the process is the soldering.

Once the component parts have been added through the pick and place process, the board will be passed through the soldering machine. There are two basic techniques of soldering machines that are widely used today: the first one is through a wave soldering machine and the second one is through reflow soldering strategies.

The fourth step in the process is inspection.

PCB AssemblyOnce the board has passed through the process of soldering, it is now time to inspect them. The purpose of the inspection is to detect this early if there are incorrectly placed components and joints, and incorrectly added components. In this way, there is a possibility that a defective printed circuit board be corrected the soonest possible time. In addition, should the boards of the same batch be of the same defects, the factory will be able to immediately correct them before too many boards are produced and the problem becomes unmanageable. There are two basic types of inspection: the first one is automatic inspection (optical) and the other is manual inspection.

The fifth step in the process is the testing.

Once the board passed the inspection stage, it will now be important to test it in electronic machines and products. In this way, the printed circuit board will not leave the factory’s premises without making sure that it will run satisfactorily for the consumer. There are certain ‘Test and Measurement’ techniques that are done by PCB manufacturers in order to make sure that their products are effective.

The sixth and final step in the PCB assembly process is the feedback.

Once the printed circuit board has left the factory’s premises, it will be important to make sure that the PCBs that were released are of the highest quality. How do they do this? They usually seek feedback from distributors, retailers and consumers. Some companies conduct frequent inspection of the printed circuit boards even after it left the factory.


Read More »

Selling Unwanted Gold and Silver Just Got Easier With Online Pawn Solutions

Pawn Shop When you have precious metals, you may use them for a spell, but there’s going to be a time when you don’t wear them or use them. Millions of dollars in jewelry ends up in closets, drawers, storage units, and they just collect dust. The dust collected never truly appreciates the value of your items, and you may never get to use them for their intended purposes. If you have ever received the gift of a ring, necklace, bracelet or other items, and aren’t using them, what do you plan on doing with them? If you aren’t sure, perhaps it’s time to look into selling. Selling unwanted, unused, and broken pieces of jewelry has been made easier than ever. In fact, with options like, you can very well get top dollar online, without having to deal with the issues that many people have dealt with in the past.

The High Cost of Selling Precious Metals (In The Past)

There was a time when selling precious metals was a hassle. Trying to get high dollar was something that you could not easily get done. You could go to a mall store, or try to do so with new mail order options, but chances are you are not going to get much traction. It was just not so simple to get rid of gold, silver, and platinum. Copper as well was tough. But times have changed, and now it’s a little easier. But just because it’s easier, doesn’t mean that you’re going to get top dollar.

If you don’t go with a trusted source like, you’re going to have to pay a lot in fees. Companies today are getting people to sell them their gold and more, and are not giving top dollar. They are pricing things lower because they have a lot of overhead, and they think about profit first. That leaves little room for an individual to get paid for their items. If you don’t want to take on the hassle of going that route, you could always seek a different route. That’s where you’ll find pawn options to be a little better overall.

Selling To Pawn Solutions (The Better Route)


Instead of going to the mall or a jewelry store, you could easily save time, and get more money through an online pawn solution. One option that many people are focusing on is that of This is a solution that can help you gain the upper hand, as you could get top dollar for your jewelry, and not worry about getting less than the pure value. In fact, the company has been working with jewelry and precious metal sales for some time. They are going to be able to assess what you have and then give you a quote that is far better than any other option you may pursue.

The value of your items will be more than you can get from other places because there’s less overhead. There’s no marketing commercials on national television or radio, and you get a trusted solution. Often times, when you go with popular options from media, you have to deal with high fees associated with their marketing budgets, etc. This is not the case with this online resource.

Test It Out Once

If you’re not sure about pawning your items, take a chance. Go for it just once, and you’ll no doubt see a good thing come through. You’ll find that you can gain the upper hand, and get a good solid push forward in regard to making money off of your unwanted, unused items. Test it once, and see why so many are testing this out for their items, and getting paid all the same, sometimes higher than the value of other solutions.

Read More »

Things To Know About Iron On Patches


What’s better than patches? Iron-on patches. Why? The hassle of stitching them on fabric is long gone. It means that your face won’t scrunch anymore as you watch the battle between the needle and the thread. You won’t have to go out of the house and pay someone to stitch up a patch for you. It also means covering up that pesky rip on your shirt faster than a snap. Other than practical uses though, iron-on patches give almost everything life from tote bags to even canvass shoes. Or if you want, attach them to your favorite shirt to support your favorite sports teams!

We at Patches4Less make high-quality and durable iron-on patches at prices we’re sure you’ll love. Just send us your designs whether it may be a sketch or a computer file and we’ll get it done.

Speaking Of Designs

Customizing patches are all we do and yes we are very good at it. We can utilize any sketch, drawing or picture to create your patch as long as it can give us an idea of what you really want your iron-on patch to look like. Today, technology is practically living with us, so it gives us a better edge at patch-making. As the client, you can see for yourself the digital version of your patch in color and enhanced by our artist. Revisions are all free of charge. After approval, productions start and you my dear friend get to rest. We’ll take care of everything.

Now, if you want to make a patch out of a logo, or a duplicate of another patch, color matches matter; you can notify us with the colors you want for fabric and thread. Since the color in computer monitors vary, consult a local print shop or a Pantone© (PMS) color chart to know the exact color match. Visit our site, Designing and check out the bottom part of the page; you’ll see our patch color guide for both thread and twill. For the finished product though, we would much appreciate it if you would inform us if you want to avail other patch options. Visit our site and go to “Pricing”, at the right side of the page is a table with a list of patch options that can guide you.

How Much Do These Cost?

The right price depends on the size of your patch. The size on the other hand is determined by the width and length of your patch. Measure both length and width, add them together and divide the sum by 2. Pricing and at the bottom part of the page is a chart with patch sizes and their corresponding prices. Look for your calculated patch size and voilà you have the price per patch. Or to know the size of your patch and its price instantly, go to the same link and there you will fill out a form; we can calculate the price for you. All you have to do then is decide if you want to order. We know you want to.

Just How Reliable Are We?

We have satisfied many customers over the years already and we have been getting praises for the level of detail that we can embroider on each patch. Our staff has years of experience in this line of work, has received thousands of orders and has kept the level of professional work constant at a maximum. We have customized patches for sports teams, biker clubs, boy scout and girl scout uniforms, police uniforms, video games, martial arts studios, festivals, organizations, companies, you name it. We have received heartwarming reviews from our clients, for just a few years. Not too shabby.

Iron-on-patchesIron-on patches have no time period. From covering rips and faded areas in your clothes, to rewards for children and cool party favors, patches are beloved and are enjoyed by everyone, no matter what generation. Patches4Less iron-on patches are made of high quality fabric and thread. They’re professionally made, durable, easy to use, and manufactured fast. At Patches4Less, we make sure we meet with our clients expectations. Designs are all customized and we won’t charge a dime for revisions.

Rest assured that we won’t start producing your patches until you are 100% satisfied with your design’s digital outcome. Shipping is free nationwide via FedEx. Contact Patches4Less or visit now!

Author Bio offers unique choices for your patch plan that can make your patch both more practical and lovely. Iron On patches gives a brilliant look without the high cost.

Read More »

RockBottomGolf Reveals the Truth about Hybrid Golf Club Components

Often referred to as utility clubs, hybrid golf clubs have been popular for years and are continually becoming more important in the sport. They are widely used by PGA Tour pros. Even amateurs are already using hybrids in order to enhance their performance. Hybrids offer various features that can easily improve your game. It is one of the most celebrated innovations in this sport in the recent years. Golfers substitute them for the 2-, 3-, 4- or 5-irons.

They have the combined characteristics of irons and woods. This combination provides golfers various kinds of clubs that are easier to use. You can easily find different kinds and combinations of hybrid golf clubs at Rockbottomgolf. Hybrids can reduce the tendency of a golfer to make swing errors as well.

Perks of a Hybrid Sole

Just like fairway woods,ahybrid has a wide club face sole. Thin, bladed long irons offer more accuracy.However,as Rockbottomgolf has noticed, many golfers opt for fairway woods. Players think they have to swing harder when using long irons. This is because of the impression they get from looking at the thin club face of irons. This can cause a golfer to make an undesirable shot by making swings with a bad timing. A hybrid can give players more confidence as they see its wide clubface while looking down to address the ball.

Hard and Even Face

Similar to the long iron, the club faces of hybrids are even, while there is a bulge or slight curve on the club face of metal woods. Hitting the ball squarely is just a piece of cake because of the flat club face of hybrids. The hybrid club faces are solid, similar to that of the fairway woods. This will allow your shot to reach farther. This is one of the reasons why pros put hybrids in their golf bags. Even beginners can reach greater distances with a slower swing speed if they opt to use a hybrid.

Hybrid Golf

Much Better Centre of Gravity

The back and the bottom of the club head is where the center of gravity of hybrids is. If your swing speed is slow, then you will surely have no problem if you opt to use hybrid golf clubs. This is because of the location of their center of gravity. The low centre of gravity of the hybrids will enable you to make a round swing and sweep the golf ball off the turf even with a slow speed, just like with a the fairway wood. Many pros opt to benefit from this instead of using long irons that require a precise and more uptight swing to hit the ball squarely.

Getting the ball airborne is also easier with hybrids due to their low centre of gravity. Compared to iron golf clubs with similar loft degree, a hybrid can get the ball even higher into the air. Hitting the golf ball with a hybrid can also cause it to land on the green in a gentler or softer way.

Hybrid Golf Club

Woods are Taller and Heavier

Hybrids are shorter than woods and are commonly quite longer or equal to the iron they substitute for, as you might have noticed on Rockbottomgolf’s gallery. As an example, the 2-iron it substitutes is commonly 39 inches in length. A regular 5-wood is longer. Its normal length is 42 inches. Golf players cannot usually control the fairway woods,which are significantly longer and heavier, quite well.

These are just some of the important components of hybrid golf clubs. This only shows the benefits of using them as well as explains why a lot of pros opt for them. You can consider them the next time you buy golf equipment or build a better golf set. Keep in mind that the type of clubs that fit you are the most preferable ones. You can check out Rockbottomgolf’s online store to find the golf equipment you are looking for.

Read More »

Keynote Speaker: Top 7 Must-Have Characteristics

Certain professionals typically attend conferences that focus on their niches. Through these conferences, they will be able to gain more knowledge about their respective niches and develop themselves. They will also be able to expand their professional networks.

In order for a conference to be a success, that is, the professionals who attended such event can learn something from the gathering, it is important to hire a good keynote speaker. The keynote speaker will be the one to facilitate each discussion and headline each session.

So, how does one find a good speaker for a particular event? Here are the top characteristics that such facilitator should have.

1. Understands the main purpose of the event

The speaker has a full understanding of what the purpose of the event is and why he is there. He should know the theme of the event beforehand so that he will be able to prepare and deliver a relevant speech to the audience.

There are some keynote speakers who only talk in events in order to further market and sell themselves. However, a good one knows that he should be selling the idea and purpose of the event that he is facilitating.


2. Knows how to approach the audience

The members of the audience will definitely have different personalities. In this case, a good speaker will surely try to know what personalities compose the audience that he will be delivering a keynote speech to. He should be coordinating with the organizer of the event to get such information.

Once he knows his audience, a good speaker should also be able to know what approach to use in order to deliver the message of his speech. At the same time, such approach should have each member of the audience learn something about the session. The speaker will also be able to establish rapport with the audience as well as credibility on his own skills.

3. Does not use a lot of props

Charts, spreadsheets, and other props can help the audience see and read relevant data. These data are substantial in the message that a speaker is trying to deliver. However, the use of too much props can only result to confusion and excessive information processing on the part of the audience members.

A good keynote speaker lets his words bear great impact that his props. Although he may use props, he makes sure that he only uses props in a minimum amount.

Keynote Speaker

4. Knows how to humor the audience

The audience members typically lose their attention to the discussion at times, especially if the subject is too much to handle or simply perceived as boring. In this case, a good speaker knows how to use good humor to regain their attention. Through humor or other relevant entertainment, he can deliver his message without making the discussion boring.

However, it is important that the speaker knows when and what type of humor he should use. Right timing is key. Delivering humor without timing may negatively affect the outcome of the session.

5. Knows the right pace when talking

A keynote speech can either be short or long, depending primarily on the subject and other factors. However, pacing is more important. A good speaker knows how to talk at the right pace. It should be just right to be able to clearly deliver the message while the audience members digest properly the information that they are receiving from the facilitator.

6. Tells only the truth from real stories

Telling real stories that substantiate his message and relevant to the theme of the event can help you build rapport with the audience. This way, trust will be present between both sides. The audience will also see the speaker as a real person who encountered real experiences. As such, they will feel that they will most likely succeed in a particular activity since someone on stage is talking about his success in it.

7. Able to let the audience put the concept into action

Most importantly, he should be capable of letting the audience act upon the message that he is delivering. The keynote speaker is there to make a positive impact, after all. If the audience has not learned anything or did not put their learnings to action, then, he has failed.

Different methods of ending a speech may vary, depending on the speaker. He may leave a question or two related to the theme. Whatever the method is, a good speaker will surely find a way to incorporate the message into the life of the listener.

Read More »

Things to Remember About Long Island Loan Modification


If Long Island was a state all on its own, it would be the 13th most populous state in the United States and the first when it comes to population density. Not only does Long Island house the busiest airports in the entire state of New York (JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport), its counties of are known be among the busiest suburban areas.

Foreclosure is a reality that Long Island homeowners seem to know well, and many of course try to prevent it. This is why many homeowners seek help in the form of a Long Island loan modification. With the help of a loan modification attorney, a homeowner can ensure that he does not have to file for bankruptcy or have to have any fear of the bank foreclosing his property.stock-vector-long-island-new-york-united-states-of-america-states-cities-skyline-silhouette-black-design-vector-205736398

This article serves to provide more information about Long Island loan modification. Below are some of the things to remember when a homeowner decides to apply for a Long Island loan modification, such as the qualifications, how the lender goes about the loan modification, and so on.



  •  A homeowner is allowed to receive a Long Island loan modification once within a 24-month period.


  • Many factors could affect a homeowner’s application for a loan modification. This could include if the homeowner is experiencing a loss of income, if the homeowner or others within the house receives any “continuous income”, the homeowner’s surplus income is still insufficient to make the necessary payments, and, of course, if the homeowner has not received a loan modification is the past 24 months.


  • The lender in the deal may include all the legal fees and foreclosure costs that have been worked off in the current deal in the new principal balance. However, he is expected to give up claiming all late fees, if there are any.


  • The lender in the deal may also inspect the property to see if any physical modifications to it will directly affect the homeowner’s capability to pay off the mortgage with the loan modification.


  • The interest rate should be changed to match or follow the current Market Rate. The Market Rate is defined as the rate that is not more than 25 basis points greater than the most recent PMMS (Primary Mortgage Market Survey) Rate and rounded off to the nearest one-eighth of one percent.images


  • The lender of the deal must re-amortize the total unpaid amount that is due over a 360 month period once the loan has been modified.


  • The lender must also perform an escrow analysis when the loan modification happens so that the capitalized payments reflect the escrow requirements that is needed for the months capitalized.


  •  If ever during a financial review the lender of the deal encounters problems such as unemployment for the homeowner and the household income and expenses are sufficient to pay off the modified mortgage but not enough to pay off the arrearage, the lender has the right to speak to their own attorneys or any other legal counsel to see if the homeowner is still eligible for the loan modification.

A homeowner should also keep in mind to prepare the necessary documents needed for his application and should also be ready to answer any questions that the attorney and lender may ask once the application is

If a Long Island homeowner should still have any questions regarding their application to a loan modification or anything about their mortgage in general, there are numerous loan modification attorneys that could be contacted. Many of these attorneys in Long Island have had many years’ experience and could be helpful in sorting out any legal issues and speak on behalf of the homeowner.

Read More »